How you do that is personal. Most writers say they just keep writing and never look back. This could work if you have a linear action driven plot, but that does not work for my books.
You can see that writing about all of these things in a first draft could be daunting and overwhelming.
If I just try to write my first draft all in one go, characters start doing things that are not supported by previous parts of the plot. I get annoyed. Initially I deal with it, but after a while I lose interest. To write I have to be fully engrossed in the story, just like when I read. If it’s a bad book, it doesn’t matter to me that I will make it better later, I become bored and eventually get stuck.
What do I do then?
1-I spend a few days on my outline, so that I have a pretty good idea of where the main story is going
2-I start writing the main plot (in my example the steamy romance plus STEM)
3-As soon as I start losing interest I go back to the beginning of that section (my books are typically divided in parts) and start over. Mind you, because now I know a bit better where that part is going I start crafting my story adding humor, sensuality, clues…basically, I have a blast. Typically I get much farther than where I got stuck the first time. When I do, I start over. I don’t force myself to reread all the chapters. If some worked well I skim through them quickly.
How long does it take to write a first draft?
It might take two months or twenty years.
Every story is different, and yours will never be read unless you plow through the very unpleasant phase of drafting it (fumbling with words feeling like you have no idea what the heck you are doing). What matters is that you are consistent with your writing time. Carve writing time every day, no matter how little, and remember that even staring at your project is part of progress. NEVER QUIT. YOU CAN DO IT.
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Who am I to give you advice?
I am a molecular biologist, a college professor, and the very short author of the Italian Saga (#TIS): an irreverent series taking place in Italy and speaking of love, sadness, sex, and happiness with a healthy dose of humor <3